|Listen to Prabhaata-rashmih Audio|
Harih Om Tat sat. Jai Guru. Jai Guru.
Today I have to speak for Asianet. I am discussing the twelfth chapter of Bhagavad Gita. One additional note in my discussions for the Asianet, this Mukthisudhakaram program is that I spend some time, not sometime, enough time to find out how best I can relate important concepts which are presented in Bhagavad Gita with earlier and succeeding references.
The twelfth chapter commences with an enquiry from Arjuna as to whether the people given to the devotional path or the other spiritual, knowledge path, who are better and more connected with the truth? This was the question.
Krishna as usual with his psychological expertise says that “The people who are devoted to me through devotion are the best. But the other people also come to me provided,” he says, “sarva-bhūta-hite ratāḥ”, “provided they are interested in the welfare of all creatures.” And then he gives a beautiful description as to what the other people are. In that description,
Are two phrases he uses. So I was thinking about, ‘sanniyamyendriya-grāmaṁ’, regulating and refining the senses, all the senses very well. And ‘sarvatra sama-buddhayaḥ’, fostering an equal vision everywhere and at all times.
So I was thinking… Generally I do my morning walk. That is the time I think about these matters. So I wanted to enlarge this concept and say how much important these two are. And not only that, what is the very special significance or uniqueness about the two?
Bhagavad Gita is a śāstra. A śāstra means a scientific treatise. Being a śāstra, our Sanskrit śāstras are supposed to have six lakshanas. Every śāstra must incorporate these six lakshanas. That is our scientific tradition. What are they?
Upakramaḥ, Upasamhāraḥ. What is the subject discussed in the śāstras should be first mentioned. It should also be mentioned at the end. Then, it should be repeated in between. So, at the commencement, in the conclusion and repeated throughout. These are the three. Upakramaḥ, Upasamhāraḥ, āvarthiḥ.
Then, whatever is presented should become scientific, logical and rational. That is called Upapatthiḥ. So how many are they? Upakramaḥ, upasamhāraḥ, āvarthiḥ, then upapatthiḥ, reasonableness, rationality, a scientific nature of the discussion.
Then, there must be phala-shruti - what is the benefit of following this śāstra on this particular subject?
Then sixth is artha-vadhaḥ, eulogism. Eulogism means exaggeration. Exaggeration is a quality of the śāstras. Whatever is mentioned in the śāstras, in order to make people interested in it, the benefits, qualities, its nature, features etc. will have to be exaggerated. That exaggeration in terms of profusion of words and profusion of many things, that is what makes it alluring, enchanting.
Suppose, a person says “A dog came here.” Nobody will listens to him. “Do you know a dog came here? It was twelve feet high!”
“12 feet?” Everybody will be interested in seeing.
Whenever you call somebody for speaking or you are conducting a function, what is the uniqueness of the function, what is the uniqueness of the person, this has to be mentioned. Otherwise nobody will be interested in it. This is also a scientific analysis and need.
So, Upakramaḥ, upasamhāraḥ, āvarthiḥ, upapatthiḥ, phala-shrutiḥ, artha-vadhaḥ. There is one more. It is called Apūrvatha. I don’t know where it will fits in. It becomes seven according to what I have said now.
That apūrvatha means any śāstra will become relevant only when it has something exclusive to provide which the other śāstras do not have. Then only it will gain popularity and following. So I was trying to link it up and wanted to say that ‘indriya-nigrahaḥ’ is the apūrvatha of Bhagavad Gita.
See, you will find philosophy discussed in many places. The philosophy is only an exposure of the subtle truth. So it is primarily a question of using various methods of logic, reason etc. and tell you that this is the supreme truth. In explaining it, why should we discuss sensory control? Truth is something to be understood. The understanding arises in the intelligence. So the entire approach should be in the way of an exposure to the intelligence. But Sri Krishna and Bhagavad Gita repeatedly say, ‘control of senses’.
vaśe hi yasyendriyani, tasya prajña pratiśṭhita ||
Right in the second chapter describing the ‘sthitha-prajna’, what is that? A man with a steady mind, stable mind, stable intelligence. So the intelligence has to be come stable. And while describing that person, at one point, he says.
Vaśe hi yasyendriyani, tasya prajña pratiśṭhita.Whose senses are under control, his mind alone is stable. So the stable-minded and the sensory-control man, both are same. From that time onwards, he goes on saying ‘indriya-nigrahaḥ’.
So I wanted to find out in how many places there is a reference to sensory control and in how many places sama-buddhiḥ. sama-buddhiḥ is also Bhagavad Gita’s uniqueness. But you cannot say no other śāstras have spoken about sama-buddhiḥ. Sama-buddhiḥ has been dealt with in so many places. So I was going through, rushing through to find out in how many places, this sama-buddhiḥ has come. I could not complete it. This is where I require some help. Sometimes I ask Satish to find out.
This Bhagavad Gita is a book where you can spend a lot of time. Why should this sama-buddhiḥ be discussed in such detail and what is this sama-buddhiḥ? It is actually a quality of intelligence. Can the quality of the intelligence be purely subjective without any objective reference or relationship? If so, how does Krishna describe its objective relevances? So you will find in many places he has referred this samatva, sama-buddhiḥ, sāmya , sama-dṛṣti, sama-darśana. So many places he has mentioned.
If you start reading Bhagavad Gita with interest and with a view to find out how it is applicable and how it can be followed, you will find beautiful references here and there. Unfortunately people go on committing Bhagavad Gita to memory, they recite it regularly, but nobody spends any time to understand how this book becomes a sādhanā book and what is the sādhanā element in it? You will find sensory control and even vision - these are the two essentials of Bhagavad Gita. Senses you have, control you can make. Buddhi you have, make it even also you can. These are the only two exercises. These are the only two sādhanās to be pursued according to Bhagavad Gita.
So I spend some time, try to think about it, relate it, and bring about. That is why the talk becomes very extensive. Here I am not governed by any time limit. Provided we have money it can be telecast. Provided I am able to speak, I have the health and voice, I can speak. So today I am going to have recording. For about nearly three hours I will be shut up in that room for recording.
Harih Om Tat Sat. Jai Guru.