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The Guiding force of Narayanashrama Tapovanam & Center for Inner Resources Development

Swami Bhoomananda Tirtha

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Essential Shlokas for Memorization

 

Bhagavad Gita is a historic narration. It is a dialogue between an enlightened intelligence and a deluded mind. The more you read BHAGAVAD GITA, the more it will enrich and empower you. Make it a CLOSE and INTIMATE friend.

 Poojya Swami Bhoomananda Tirtha

Why should we memorize verses?

When we take a verse by heart, it becomes a part of us. It is in our stock, as Swamiji often says. It comes to us wherever we need it. We can think about it, ruminate on it, and most importantly, let it guide us as we move along this journey. Listen to this Prabhatarashmih (transcript) where Swamiji exhorts us to memorize verses for deeper introspection.

Read Ma Gurupriya Ji's letter to know more about how to make these shlokas your faithful companions throughout life. The translation of each shloka has been taken from the book 'Insights into Bhagavad Gita'. Detailed explanation of each shloka is from the book 'Essential Concepts in Bhagavad Gita'.

In Kurukshetra with Krishna
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Chapter 1

 

धृतराष्ट्र उवाच ।
धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सव: । ।
मामका: पाण्डवाश्चैव किमकुर्वत सञ्जय ।। १.१ ।।

dhṛtrāṣṭra-uvāca ।
dharmakṣetre kurukṣetre samavetā yuyutsava: ।
māmakā: pāṇḍavāścaiva kimakurvata sañjaya ।। 1.1 ।।

King Dhritarashtra said: O Sanjaya, having assembled in Kurukshetra, an abode of austerity and righteousness, what did my sons and those of Pandu, ambitious as they were to fight, do?

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Chapter 2

कार्पण्यदोषोपहतस्वभावः पृच्छामि त्वां धर्मसम्मूढचेताः ।
यच्छ्रेयः स्यान्निश्चितं ब्रूहि तन्मे शिष्यस्तेऽहं शाधि मां त्वां प्रपन्नम् ।। २.७ ।।

kārpaṇya-doshopahata-svabhāvaḥ pṛcchāmi tvāṃ dharma-sammūḍha-cetāḥ ।
yaccreyaḥ syān-niścitam brūhi tan-me śiṣyas-te'haṃ śādhi māṃ tvāṃ prapannam ।। 2.7।।

Overpowered by narrow-mindedness, deluded I am in adjudging the right path of dharma. So, I beseech you to tell me decisively what will fetch lasting good. I am your disciple. Instruct me, who has taken refuge under you, my Teacher.
 
 

 

न हि प्रपश्यामि ममापनुद्याद् यच्छोकमुच्छोषणमिन्द्रियाणाम् ।
अवाप्य भूमावसपत्नमृद्धं राज्यं सुराणामपि चाधिपत्यम् ।। २.८ ।।

na hi prapaśyāmi mamāpanudyād yat-shokam-ucchoṣaṇam-indriyāṇāṁ ।
avāpya bhūmāu-asapatna-ṛddham rājyaṁ surāṇām-api ca-adhipatyam ।। 2.8।।

I do not see anything to redress the sorrow scorching my senses. Gaining a prosperous and unrivalled kingship on earth or lordship over gods above, will be of no avail to me.

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श्रीभगवानुवाच
अशोच्यानन्वशोचस्त्वं प्रज्ञावादांश्च भाषसे ।
गतासूनगतासूंश्च नानुशोचन्ति पण्डिताः ।। २-११ ।।

Śri Bhagavān uvāca ।
aśocyān-anvaśocas-tvaṁ prajñā-vādāṁśca bhāṣase ।
gatāsūn-agatāsūṅsca nānuśocanti paṇditāḥ ।। 2.11 ।।

Lord Krishna said: You are grieving for those who should not be grieved for at all, yet you speak words of wisdom. The spiritually wise grieve not for the living or the dead!

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न त्वेवाहं जातु नासं न त्वं नेमे जनाधिपाः ।
न चैव न भविष्यामः सर्वे वयमतः परम् ।। २-१२ ।।

na tv-evāhaṁ jātu nāsaṁ na tvaṁ neme janādhipāḥ ।
na caiva na bhaviṣyāmaḥ sarve vayam-ataḥ param ।। 2.12 ।।

There was no time when I was not, you were not, or these kings were not. Nor shall all of us ever cease to be.

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देहिनोऽस्मिन्यथा देहे कौमारं यौवनं जरा ।
तथा देहान्तरप्राप्तिर्धीरस्तत्र न मुह्यति ।। २-१३ ।।

dehino’smin yathā dehe kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā ।
tathā dehāntara-prāptir-dhīras-tatra na muhyati ।।  2.13 ।।

Just as the one dwelling in the body undergoes childhood, youth and old age, so too is the transition from the body. The wise one is not deluded about it.

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मात्रास्पर्शास्तु कौन्तेय शीतोष्णसुखदुःखदाः ।
आगमापायिनोऽनित्यास्तांस्तितिक्षस्व भारत ।। २-१४ ।।

mātrā-sparśās-tu kaunteya śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha-dāḥ ।
āgamāpāyino’nityās-tāṁs-titikṣasva bhārata ।। 2.14 ।।

Contacts between the senses and their objects, O son of Kunti, produce sukha- duḥkhas (joy and sorrow), like cold and heat. O Bharata, they come and go, hence are transitory. You must forbear them.

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यं हि न व्यथयन्त्येते पुरुषं पुरुषर्षभ ।
समदुःखसुखं धीरं सोऽमृतत्वाय कल्पते ।। २-१५ ।।

yaṃ hi na vyathayanty-ete puruṣaṃ puruṣarṣabha ।
sama-duḥkha-sukhaṃ dhīraṃ so'mṛtatvāya kalpate ।। 2.15 ।।

Whoever is not tormented by these, O Purusharshabha (Arjuna), that wise human, equanimous in sukha-du:khas, is fit for immortality, liberation.

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नासतो विद्यते भावो नाभावो विद्यते सतः ।
उभयोरपि दृष्टोन्तस्त्वनयोस्तत्त्वदर्शिभिः ।। २-१६ ।।

nāsato vidyate bhāvo nābhāvo vidyate sata: ।
ubhayor-api dṛṣṭo’ntastvanayos-tattva-darśibhi: ।। 2.16 ।।

The ‘unreal’ has no expression. The ‘real’ will never cease to be. By experts in the knowledge of Truth, the difference between the two (the Real and the Unreal) has clearly been ascertained.

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अविनाशि तु तद्विद्धि येन सर्वमिदं ततम् ।

विनाशमव्ययस्यास्य न कश्चित् कर्तुमर्हति ।। २-१७ ।।

avināśi tu tad-viddhi yena sarvam-idaḿ tatam ।
vināśam-avyayasyāsya na kaścit kartum-arhati ।। 2.17 ।।

Know that, by which all this is permeated, to be indestructible, imperishable. None will be able to destroy this permeating presence.

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न जायते म्रियते वा कदाचित्नायं भूत्वा भविता वा न भूयः ।

अजो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽयं पुराणो न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे ।। २-२० ।।

na jāyate mriyate vā kadācit- nāyaṁ bhūtvā bhavitā vā na bhūyaḥ ।
ajo nityaḥ śāśvato’yaṃ purāṇo na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre ।। 2.20 ।।

Know that, by which all this is permeated, to be indestructible, imperishable. None will be able to destroy this permeating presence.

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नैनं छिन्दन्ति शस्त्राणि नैनं दहति पावकः ।

न चैनं क्लेदयन्त्यापो न शोषयति मारुतः ।। २-२३ ।।

nainaṁ chindanti śastrāṇi nainaṁ dahati pāvakaḥ ।
na cainaṁ kledayanty-āpo na śoṣayati mārutaḥ ।। 2.23 ।।

Weapons do not pierce the indwelling Soul, nor does fire burn It. Neither water wets It, nor wind dries It.

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अच्छेद्योऽयमदाह्योऽयमक्लेद्योऽशोष्य एव च ।

नित्यः सर्वगतः स्थाणुरचलोऽयं सनातनः।। २-२४ ।।

acchedyo’yam-adāhyo’yam-akledyo’śoṣya eva ca ।
nitya: sarva-gata: sthāṇur-acalo’yaṃ sanātana: ।। 2.24 ।।

This Soul cannot be cut, burnt, wetted or dried. This is eternal, everywhere present, unshakeable, unmoving and ever prevailing.

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अव्यक्तादीनि भूतानि व्यक्तमध्यानि भारत ।

अव्यक्तनिधनान्येव तत्र का परिदेवना ।। २-२८ ।।

avyaktādīni bhūtāni vyakta-madhyāni bhārata ।
avyakta-nidhanāny-eva tatra kā paridevanā ।। 2.28 ।।

The beginning of all beings is indistinct. Their end too is unknown. The middle state, namely the duration called life, is alone distinct. This being so, what is the point in grieving?

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देही नित्यमवध्योऽयं देहे सर्वस्य भारत ।

तस्मात्सर्वाणि भूतानि न त्वं शोचितुमर्हसि ।। २-३० ।।

dehī nityam-avadhyo’yaṁ dehe sarvasya bhārata ।
tasmāt-sarvāṇi bhūtāni na tvaṁ śocitum-arhasi ।। 2.30 ।।

In the body of all, the indwelling Self is ever indestructible. Hence you must not grieve over any being.

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सुखदुःखे समे कृत्वा लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ ।

ततो युद्धाय युज्यस्व नैवं पापमवाप्स्यसि ।। २-३८ ।।

sukha-duḥkhe same kṛtvā lābhālābhau jayājayau ।
tato yuddhāya yujyasva naivaṁ pāpam-avāpsyasi ।। 2.38 ।।

Evenize your mind towards sukha and duḥkha, gain and loss, victory and defeat, and then engage in war. Thus you will not incur sin.

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नेहाभिक्रमनाशोऽस्ति प्रत्यवायो न विद्यते ।

स्वल्पमप्यस्य धर्मस्य त्रायते महतो भयात् ।। २-४० ।।

nehābhikrama-nāśo’sti pratyavāyo na vidyate ।
svalpam-apy-asya dharmasya trāyate mahato bhayāt ।। 2.40 ।।

In this yoga path, there is no loss of effort, nor any adverse outcome. Even a small measure of this yogic pursuit will save one from mighty fear.

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व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिरेकेह कुरुनन्दन ।

बहुशाखा ह्यनन्ताश्च बुद्धयोऽव्यवसायिनाम् ।। २-४१ ।।

vyavasāyātmikā buddhir-ekeha kurunandana ।
bahu-śākhā hy-anantāś-ca buddhayo’vyavasāyinām ।। 2.41 ।।

In this (Yoga path) there is but one factor—resoluteness of intelligence, O Arjuna (O son of Kurus). Comprehensions of the un-resolute are multi-branched and endless.

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योगस्थः कुरु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा धनञ्जय ।

सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्योः समो भूत्वा समत्वं योग उच्यते ।। २-४८ ।।

yoga-stha: kuru karmāṇi saṅgaṃ tyaktvā dhanañjaya ।
siddhy-asiddhyo: samo bhūtvā samatvaṃ yoga ucyate ।। 2.48 ।।

Do all your acts, but remaining established in Yoga, leaving the usual delusional clinging, O Dhananjaya. Preserve an even attitude to fruition and non-fruition of whatever you do. Such evenness is defined as Yoga.

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बुद्धियुक्तो जहातीह उभे सुकृतदुष्कृते ।

तस्माद्योगाय युज्यस्व योगः कर्मसु कौशलम् ।। २-५० ।।

buddhi-yukto jahātīha ubhe sukṛta-duṣkṛte ।
tasmād-yogāya yujyasva yoga: karmasu kauśalam ।। 2.50 ।।

One with intelligence attuned to Yoga outlives both virtue and vice, here in this world. Therefore, dedicate yourself to Yoga. Yoga is verily dexterity in performing all kinds of actions.

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श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना ते यदा स्थास्यति निश्चला ।

समाधावचला बुद्धिस्तदा योगमवाप्स्यसि ॥२-५३ ।।

śruti-vipratipannā te yadā sthāsyati niścalā ।
samādhāv-acalā buddhis- tadā yogam-avāpsyasi ॥2.53 ।।

When your intelligence, flung by the conflicting views of scriptures, becomes steady and stable within, then will you attain yoga, the spiritual communion.

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अर्जुन उवाच -
स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा समाधिस्थस्य केशव ।
स्थितधी: किं प्रभाषेत किमासीत व्रजेत किम् ॥ २-५४ ।।

Arjuna uvāca –
sthita-prajñasya kā bhāṣā samādhi-sthasya keśava ।

sthita-dhīḥ kiṁ prabhāṣeta kim-āsīta vrajeta kim ॥2.54 ।।

Arjuna said: How will you, O Keshava, describe the one of stable consciousness (Sthita-prajña) absorbed in meditation? What does the one with stable intelligence (Sthita-dhee) speak? How does he rest? And how does he interact with the world?

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श्रीभगवानुवाच -
प्रजहाति यदा कामान् सर्वान् पार्थ मनोगतान् ।
आत्मन्येवात्मना तुष्ट: स्थितप्रज्ञस्तदोच्यते ॥ २-५५ ।।

śrī-bhagavān uvāca –
prajahāti yadā kāmān sarvān pārtha manogatān ।

ātmany-evātmanā tuṣṭaḥ sthita-prajñas-tadocyate ॥ 2.55 ।।

Lord Krishna said: O Partha, when one relinquishes all desires engendered by the mind and, rejoices by himself in his own Self, he is said to be a sthita-prajna, one with steady consciousness.

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दुःखेष्वनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः ।
वीतरागभयक्रोधः स्थितधीर्मुनिरुच्यते ॥ २-५६ ।।

du:kheṣv-anudvigna-manā: sukheṣu vigata-spṛha: ।
vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodha: sthita-dhīr-munir-ucyate ॥ 2.56 ।।

With the mind not smitten by duhkhas, fostering no desire for Sukhas, he who rises above attraction, fear and anger is a sthita-dhee. He is verily a Muni, one given devoutly to rumination.

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य़: सर्वत्रानभिस्नेहस्तत्तत्प्राप्य शुभाशुभम् ।
नाभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥ २-५७ ।।

ya: sarvatrānabhisnehas-tat-tat-prāpya śubhāśubham ।
nābhinandati na dveṣṭi tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā ।। 2.57 ।।

He who transcends his constricted fondness, and does not unduly compliment or condemn whatever auspicious or inauspicious meets him, his consciousness is stable and steady.

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आपूर्यमाणमचलप्रतिष्ठं समुद्रमाप: प्रविशन्ति यद्वत् ।
तद्वत्कामा यं प्रविशन्ति सर्वे स शान्तिमाप्नोति न कामकामी ॥ २-७० ।।

āpūryamāṇam-acala-pratiṣṭhaṁ samudram-āpaḥ praviśanti yadvat ।
tadvat-kāmā yaṁ praviśanti sarve sa śāntim-āpnoti na kāma-kāmī ।। 2.70 ।।

As the ocean in which waters (of rivers) enter filling it to the brim remains unmoved, likewise the one into whom enter all experiences (unsought and causing no agitation), attains peace, not the one running after objects of desire.

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विहाय कामान्य: सर्वान्पूमांश्चरति नि:स्पृह: ।
निर्ममो निरहङ्कार: स शान्तिमधिगच्छति ॥ २-७१ ।।

vihāya kāmānya: sarvān-pumāṁś-carati ni:spṛha: ।
nirmamo nirahaṅkāra: sa śāntim-adhigacchati ।। 2.71 ।।

He who, leaving all desires, lives and moves freed from all cravings, possessiveness and ego, attains peace.

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एषा ब्राह्मी स्थिति: पार्थ नैनां प्राप्य विमुह्यति ।
स्थित्वास्यामन्तकालेऽपि ब्रह्मनिर्वाणमृच्छति ॥ २-७२ ।।

eṣā brāhmī sthitiḥ pārtha naināṁ prāpya vimuhyati ।
sthitvāsyām-antakāle ’pi brahma-nirvāṇam-ṛcchati ।। 2.72 ।।

This is indeed, O Partha, the state of abidance in Brahman, the supreme Reality. Attaining this, one no more gets deluded. Even if one gains it at the end of his life, he attains redemption by uniting with Brahman.

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Chapter 3

 

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।
लोकेऽस्मिन् द्विविधा निष्ठा पुरा प्रोक्ता मयानघ ।
ज्ञानयोगेन साङ्ख्यनां कर्मयोगेन योगिनाम् ॥ ३-३ ।।

śrī bhagavān-uvāca
loke’smin dvi-vidhā niṣṭhā purā proktā mayānagha ।

jnāna-yogena sāṅkhyānām karma-yogena yoginām ।। 3.3 ।।

Lord Krishna said: O Sinless Arjuna! Right in the beginning, had been enunciated by Me the two-fold pursuit, nishtha (for gaining supreme felicity, Sreyas). For the knowledge-oriented saankhya seekers, it is Jnana Yoga, and for the yogis it is Karma-yoga.

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न हि कश्चित्क्षणमपि जातु तिष्ठत्यकर्मकृत् ।
कार्यते ह्यवश: कर्म सर्व: प्रकृतिजैर्गुणै: ॥ ३-५ ।।

na hi kaścit-kṣaṇam-api jātu tiṣṭhaty-akarmakṛt ।
kāryate hy-avaśa: karma sarva: prakṛtijair-guṇai: ।। 3.5 ।।

None indeed ever remains inactive even for a second. All are irresistibly compelled to be active by dint of Nature’s qualities, guṇas.

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यस्त्विन्द्रियाणि मनसा नियम्यारभतेऽर्जुन ।
कर्मेन्द्रियै: कर्मयोगमसक्त: स विशिष्यते ॥ ३-७ ।।

yas-tvindriyāṇi manasā niyamyārabhate’rjuna ।
karmendriyai: karma-yogam-asakta: sa viśiṣyate ॥ 3.7 ।।

He who, regulating the sense-organs with the mind, without any delusional clinging, begins Karma-yoga with his organs of action, verily excels, O Arjuna.

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यज्ञार्थात्कर्मणोऽन्यत्र लोकोऽयं कर्मबन्धनः ।
तदर्थं कर्म कौन्तेय मुक्तसङ्गः समाचर ॥ ३-९ ।।

yajñārthāt-karmaṇo’nyatra loko’yaṃ karma-bandhana: ।
tad-arthaṃ karma kaunteya mukta-saṅga: samācara ॥ 3.9 ।।

This world is firmly bound by actions done as other than Yajña. Therefore, (to make everything Yajña),O son of Kunti (Arjuna), act for the sake of the Supreme, without delusional clinging.

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एवं प्रवर्तितं चक्रं नानुवर्तयतीह यः ।
अघायुरिन्द्रियारामो मोघं पार्थ स जीवति ॥ ३-१६ ।।

evaṃ pravartitaṃ cakraṃ nānuvartayatīha yaḥ ।
aghāyur-indriyārāmo moghaṁ pārtha sa jīvati ॥ 3.16 ।।

In this world, whoever does not conform to the “Wheel of Creation” revolving thus, is a mere sensory indulger. His is a sinful life. And he lives in vain.

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तस्मादसक्तः सततं कार्यं कर्म समाचर ।
असक्तो ह्याचरन्कर्म परमाप्नोति पूरुषः ॥ ३-१९ ।।

tasmād-asakta: satataṃ kāryaṃ karma samācara ।
asakto hy-ācaran-karma paramāpnoti pūruṣaḥ ॥ 3.19 ।।

Therefore, keeping away from delusional clinging, do well whatever comes to be done, at all times. He who acts without delusional clinging attains the Supreme.

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सक्ताः कर्मण्यविद्वांसो यथा कुर्वन्ति भारत ।
कुर्याद्विद्वांस्तथासक्तश्चिकीर्षुर्लोकसङ्ग्रहम् ॥ ३-२५ ।।

saktā: karmaṇy-avidvāṃso yathā kurvanti bhārata ।
kuryād-vidvāṃs-tathāsaktaś- cikīrṣur-lokasaṅgraham ॥ 3.25 ।।

O Bhārata, the manner in which the ignorant with delusion and attachment take to their actions, should the wise one also perform his actions, but without delusional clinging, aiming at the well-being of the world.

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तत्त्ववित्तु महाबाहो गुणकर्मविभागयोः ।
गुणा गुणेषु वर्तन्त इति मत्वा न सज्जते॥ ३-२८ ।।

tattvavit-tu mahābāho guṇa-karma-vibhāgayoḥ ।
guṇā guṇeṣu vartanta iti matvā na sajjate ॥ 3.28 ।।

One who knows the truth about guṇas (of Nature) and Karma (activity), perceives that prakṛti’s guṇas (in the form of senses) are mingling with guṇas (in the form of world objects), and consequently he does not court any delusional clinging (saṅga), O Mighty-armed Arjuna.

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इन्द्रियस्येन्द्रियस्यार्थे रागद्वेषौ व्यवस्थितौ ।
तयोर्न वशमागच्छेत्तौ ह्यस्य परिपन्थिनौ ॥ ३-३४ ।।

indriyasyendriyasyārthe rāga-dveṣau vyavasthitau ।
tayor-na vaśam-āgacchet-tau hy-asya paripanthinau ॥ 3.34 ।।

For each sense organ, attraction and repulsion towards its objects are natural. Do not come under their sway. They are one’s stark enemies.

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इन्द्रियाणि मनो बुद्धिरस्याधिष्ठानमुच्यते ।
एतैर्विमोहयत्येष ज्ञानमावृत्य देहिनम् ॥ ३-४० ।।

indriyāṇi mano buddhir-asyādhiṣṭhānam-ucyate ।
etair-vimohayaty-eṣa jñānam-āvṛtya dehinam ॥ 3.40 ।।

The senses, mind and intelligence are the seat of desire. Through these, it deludes the embodied soul, by veiling wisdom.

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इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहुरिन्द्रियेभ्य: परं मन: ।
मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धे: परतस्तु स: ।। ३-४२ ।।

indriyāṇi parāṇy-āhur-indriyebhya: paraṃ mana: ।
manasas-tu parā buddhir-yo buddhe: paratastu sa: ।। 3.42 ।।

Senses are superior to the objects around. Mind reigns above the senses. And intelligence is still superior. But the Soul (which the ‘I’ denotes, the real identity of man) is still loftier.

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एवं बुद्धे: परं बुद्ध्वा संस्तभ्यात्मानमात्मना ।
जहि शत्रुं महाबाहो कामरूपं दुरासदम् ।। ३-४३ ।।

evaṃ buddhe: paraṃ buddhvā saṃstabhyātmānam-ātmanā ।
jahi śatruṃ mahābāho kāma-rūpaṃ durāsadam ।। 3.43 ।।

Knowing thus what reigns within the body as superior to even intelligence, confidently regulating the senses and mind by your own inner power, win over, O mighty-armed, the enemy, in the form of desire, hard to conquer.

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